From May 2007 through May 2012, José Ramos-Horta was the President of the Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste—the fourth president since the country’s independence from Portugal in 1975 and the second since the restoration of the independence from Indonesia in 2002. He also served as Prime Minister and Minister of Defense from July 2006 through May 2007, and Foreign Affairs Minister from 2002 through 2006. In 1996, Ramos-Horta was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize jointly with Carlos Filipe Ximenes Belo "for their work toward a just and peaceful solution to the conflict in East Timor." He has also been recognized by the governments of Portugal, Brazil, Cuba, and Cape Verde, and he has received honorary doctorate degrees from universities in Australia, Brazil, Japan, Korea, the Philippines, Portugal, Thailand, and the United States. Born in Dili, East Timor, Ramos-Horta has studied at universities around the world, including Harvard University’s John F. Kennedy School of Government, the Hague Academy of International Law, the International Institute of Human Rights, and Oxford University’s St. Antony College. He has written extensively on international affairs for the International Herald Tribune, the New York Times, and the Wall Street Journal, and he is also the author of several books on East Timor.